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Internethistoria

Internethistoriaär en specialisering av telehistoria, teknikhistoria och historia, nämligen studiet av Internets framväxt. Det finns många berättelser om detta, och de är inte alla samstämmiga. Några kan rentav betraktas som myter. I ett så omvälvande och omfattande samhällsfenomen har givetvis otaliga faktorer inverkat, och det kan vara svårt att dra gränsen för vad som ingår i Internets historia. Så mycket är nog alla överens om att Vint Cerf med rätta brukar kallas Internets fader och att det hela började med vissa forskningsprojekt som bekostades med offentliga medel. Peter Löthberg brukar ges äran av att ha infört Internet i Sverige.Se även Datornät/Historia.

Några viktiga milstolpar

  • Tidsdelning i vissa operativsystem gör det möjligt för många människor att dela på en dator, och därmed använda datorn som stöd för sin inbördes kommunikation.
  • Tidig e-post och införandet av tecknet @ i e-postadresser.
  • Forskning om paketförmedlande datornät, i synnerhet ARPAnet.
  • Införandet av NCP.
  • Införandet av TCP (samt uppdelningen av IP i IP och TCP/UDP).
  • Införandet av DNS.
  • Införandet av HTTP och HTML - Tim Berners-Lee vid CERN.
  • februari 1993, den första grafiska webbläsaren NCSA Mosaic

Se även

  • David D. Clark: The design philosophy of the DARPA internet protocols. SIGCOMM 1988: 106-114. http://citeseer.nj.nec.com/clark88design.html

  • Svensk Internethistoria
Thom Stark <thom@starkrealities.com>, 25 februari 2002:

Steven Haigs .sig file states:

> The Internet was designed by the American Military back in the late 60s. > It was designed to be a decentralised information delivery system so that > in the event of a nuclear attack, American Military leaders would still > have access to pornography.

Yknow, I recognize this as an attempt at humor, but it perpetrates a myth about the origins of the Net that has persisted for a long time.

Im not talking about access to pr0n being a major use of the system -- thats pretty much a given. Instead, Im referring to the whole "the Internet was designed to survive a nuclear attack" meme. As it turns out, that just isnt the case.

Now, its true that, in 1964, Paul Baran conducted a study for the RAND Corporation on behalf of the USAF wherein he described a packet data peer network (this was the first such description on record) that could theoretically survive a nuclear war. No such network was funded and his study was filed away.

In late 1965, Robert W. Taylor -- who was then Assistant Director of IPTO, a sub-office of ARPA -- observed that, among the users of the three separate multiuser data networks that ARPA was then funding, what we would now term virtual communities had spontaneously arisen. Some users had accounts on all three systems, but, since they were not interconnected, the individual discussions were confined to their respective machines.

Taylor felt that, by internetworking the three separate systems, the developing communities would synergize one another and he thought it was worth connecting them to find out if he was right. The following year, he became Director of IPTO and, in that capacity, he convinced Chalie Hurtzfeld, the Director of ARPA to commit a million bucks to develop the worlds first internetwork.

With help and encouragement from folks like J.C.R. Licklider and Doug Engelbart -- and a legion of grad students who have since become the graybeards of the Internet to do the drudge work -- the first two nodes on what was then called the ARPAnet came up in 1969. (One was at UCLA, the other was in Engelbarts lab at SRI.)

Taylor has insisted ever since that ARPAnet was built as a pure research project and that the "survive a nuclear war" shibboleth had nothing to do with it, despite the fact that the peer-based packet data network of Barans study wound up being a useful model for the actual implementation.

In a phone call he made to me in 1996, Taylor said, "I was the one who presented the funding request to Charlie Herzfeld, who approved it. It was just the two of us involved in the decision, so theres no question of there being any hidden agendas. I pitched it to Charlie as a pure research project and thats the basis on which he approved the funding for it."

As an aside, its interesting to note that Paul Baran, who had quite a long career in pure research, went on to found Metricom -- which would later become the worlds first wISP -- in 1985.

Barans RAND Corporation paper:http://www.rand.org/publications/RM/RM3420/index.html

Paul Hochfields oral history interview with Baran for IEEE:http://www.ieee.org/organizations/history_center/oral_histories/transcripts/baran.html

My story, "They Might Be Giants", about Engelbart, Taylor and other forgotten Internet figures:http://www.starkrealities.com/giants.html

Regards,

Thom StarkGerald Maguire <maguire@it.kth.se>, 25 februari 2002:

Thom,

I am afraid that you have the ARPAnet confused with the Internet, theInternet did not come into being until the introduction of the IPprotocol in the 1970s. The ARPAnet was certainly a network, but it didnot true support internetwork (the interconnection of networks) untilthe introduction of the Internet Protocol. Until then it simplyprovided a way to move packets from attached hosts to an IMP(Interface Message Processor), then IMP to IMP, and finally to anotherhost.

0675 Specification of Internet Transmission Control Program. V. Cerf, Y. Dalal, C. Sunshine. Dec-01-1974.This is the first RFC which really talks about internetworking andexplicitly talks about gateways which transfer an internet packet overtop of the local frames.

This was made even more explicit with - it is really from theintroduction of IP that we have a general internetworking proctol andprotocol stack.0760 DoD standard Internet Protocol. J. Postel. Jan-01-1980.

For a period of time the ARPAnet support _both_ the original ARPAnetprotocols (Network Control Protocol (NCP)) and IP, then on January1st, 1983 NCP was no longer routed by the IMPs. As each IMP allowedyou to attach a fixed number (4) host, (Jim Mathis (v1) then HollyNelson (v2) at) SRI developed a "Port Expander" allowing one port tobe attaced to multiple machines - but each interface still looked likea port on the IMP. In 1981 UC Berkeley incorporated the TCP/IP codewhich they got from BBN into the BSD Unix release and this plus thePDP-11 which was the front end of the DecSystem-20 enabled ethernetsto gateway traffic to and from the ARPAnet. This was very significant,be cause you no longer need to have a port on an IMP to connect to thenetwork. Then in 1989 the Arpanet is shutdown as NSFnet hassuccessfully displaced it as a backbone for interconnecting manyinternets.

For more information about the IMPs see http://www.bbn.com/arpanet/ Chip

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Artikeln skriven 2009-01-18 av Learning4sharing

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